Amplifiers Electronics

The people love to listen high quality and clear music sound to entertain themselves, For this purpose the amplifiers electronics are used in wide range of different electronic equipments or devices such as television, portable CD/DVD players, computers laptops and other such devices which require speakers to generate sound. It increases the amplitude or voltage of the signal of sound in response to a small input signal. The functionality of the amplifiers electronics includes the wide usage in loudspeakers to make the human voice or musical sound appear louder in the huge gathering. These are constructed for the enhencment purpose of the voice especially needed while addressing or singing in a throng of people.
Design of Amplifiers Electronics

The amplifier electronics are designed in a modern and stylish manner to attract the complete attention of the people. These are available in several colors, most comonly used are the black, silver, grey and the brown according to the choice of the customers. A wide range of sizes can be found depending on your need. The amplifier electronics are the electric devices that are made of transistor or vacuum tubes. These days they are commonly embedded on a small chip called the integrated circuit or IC.
Utilizing The Amplifiers Electronics

There are many types of the amplifiers electronics available according to the user’s requirments. They are mostly used in the television transmitters and receivers, high-fidelity (hi-fi) stereo equipment, radio, microcomputers and many other electronic digital equipments. Except that the amplifiers electronics are used in the most common musical instruments like guitar, electric bass, and electric keyboard. While using on the stage, it allows the throng of audience to hear the hardly audible voice of the performer so loud and clear and it is also used in the dimmer that is an electronic device which controls the intensity of the stage lights. They provide a great assistance to those people who have hearing problem through the hearing aid device which enhances the loudness of sound normally. If the amplifiers were not constructed, then it would have been hard to have communication in a crowd especially when making speech, singing a song or performing on the stage.
Working of The Amplifiers Electronics

The amplifiers electronics are so useful devices for controlling as well as amplifying the sound waves. T he sound waves move the microphone diaphragm in both the directions backward as well as forward. Then this microphone diaphragm converts the movement into the electrical signals. After that the recorder interprets the electrical signals by encoding it into any medium. Then the player will transform the pattern into an electrical signal. The electricity will move a speaker cone from backward and forward that disturbs the air pressure and will then be recorded by the microphone. However, all the several types of the electronic amplifiers work in the same wayAmplifiers Electronics

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Welcome to all-new electronics world! Its good to see number of innovative electronic products are continues to evolve all around the year and its continued in 2017 also

Welcome to all-new electronics world! Its good to see number of innovative electronic products are continues to evolve all around the year and its continued in 2017 also. Recently lot of new Electronics products are introduced into the market. Here we have handpicked some of the innovative products of this year 2017 that has created an everlasting impression among the people…

Key Finder:

You will never miss you key thereafter? The all new key finder is introduced into the market to keep your key safer. When you miss your key, just blow a whistle, the key finder is equipped with noise sensors. So, the key finder starts ringing with an LED flashlight embedded onto it. This key finder comes at affordable price of Rs. 219/- onwards.

website

LED Flashlight:

In case of Power failure or Low light conditions, you can use this portable LED Flashlight by connecting it your Laptop. It is a useful emergency light that everyone must-have. This LED flashlight are introduced into the market with lowest prices ever, it starts from Rs.219/- onwards

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Smart CCTV Cameras:

Number of smart cameras are introduced into the market at lowest prices in this new year 2017. It is hard to believe that CCTV cameras comes at Rs.999/- Onwards. Here are the smart technologies to protect your property.

Rejoice yourself onto the digital revolution!

website New Electronics of 2017

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How to Protect Your Electronics From Heat

1.0 INTRODUCTION
In our modern society, we have become very dependent upon our electronic gadgets and appliances. Most households (in the U.S) have Personal Computers with an Internet Connection. If we solely looked at the Personal Computer, we do a lot of thing with this product.

We communicate with our friends, family members and business associates.

We conduct financial transactions (e.g., buy or sell products on line)

We create all kinds of documents (which are very important to our personal and business finances/operations)

We store and play music (in the form of *.mp3 files)

We (increasingly) store pictures that have sentimental value (and could be tough to replace if lost).

For many people, anytime their «computer dies», it becomes a major inconvenience in their lives. If you were to look at some other electronic systems that we typically have in our homes, such as

DVD Players

Gaming Systems (e.g., Playstation, X-Box, Nintendo, Wii, etc.)

Audio Entertainment Equipment

Video Recording Equipment (for you people that like to post videos on YouTube.

Appliances (such as Central Air Conditioning Systems, Heat Pumps, Microwave Ovens, etc.)

HDTVs (e.g., LCD or Plasma)

All of these items entertain us, enlighten us and provide us with comfort. These products each require a considerable amount of money to purchase. Further, repairing and/or replacing these products is also quite expensive. Hence, I am quite amazed that people do not do more to protect their investment (in these electronic systems) and do whatever they can to extend the operating life time of these products.

In general, there are three (3) different destructive mechanisms that will either destroy or greatly reduce the operational life-time of your electronics. These three destructive mechanisms are

Heat

Electrical Surge/Spike Events, and

Electrical Noise

In this article, we are going to talk about HEAT. As we discuss Heat, we will cover the following topics.

How is Heat destructive to your electronics?

What can we do about heat — How to Protect Your Electronics from Heat and Extend the Operating Life of our Electronics?

2.0 HOW IS HEAT DESTRUCTIVE TO YOUR ELECTRONICS
Heat is an artifact of electronics. All electronic systems generate heat. Electronic systems accept electrical power (current and voltage) from the power line (via the electrical outlet). The electronic system uses a portion of this electrical power to perform work (e.g., the function that you want it to perform, e.g., play a DVD, cook a bag of popcorn, etc). The remaining portion of this electrical power is converted into heat.

However, heat is also an enemy of electronic systems. Few things are more effective in reducing the operating life-time of an electronic system, than raising the operating temperature of the electronic circuitry within your electronic system. If you were to speak with an Electronics Device Reliability expert, he/she would tell you that for every 10 degrees (Celsius) that you raise the operating temperature of an electrical device; you reduce the operating lifetime of that device by 50%. The impact of heat (in shortening the operating life) of your electronics is «huge».

3.0 WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT HEAT?
As I mentioned earlier, all electronics generates heat. There is no way to prevent electronics from generating the very thing that can destroy it. However, there are a couple of things that you can do to prevent this heat from doing so much damage.

1. You can work to remove this heat from the electronics (as quickly as it generates it), or
2. You can do things to try to help the electronics to not generate so much heat in the first place.

I will address each of these approaches below.

3.1. REMOVING HEAT FROM THE ELECTRONICS
Many consumer electronic systems were designed with «Heat Removal» in mind. Some of these electronic systems (like desktop computers) contain «internal fans». These fans were designed into these systems so that they could blow air through the area in which the system electronics resides. The intent behind having these fans to is blow the heat away from these electronics and to help keep them cool.

Other electronic systems contain «vents» (in their outer case) to provide an «escape path» for heat. Many of these vents are located at the top or in the «back-end» of the electrical system. On this basis, I have the following recommendations to permit the removal of heat from your electronics.

Make sure and keep papers, books, dust and other items from «blocking» the vents of these systems.
Leaving these items on top of your (DVD Player for example) will block the vents, and will not allow for heat to escape from your DVD Player. This will cause the temperature (surrounding the electronics) within your DVD player to rise; which will (in-turn) reduce the operating lifetime of your DVD player.

Make sure that the «back-end» of the electronic system is not «butt-up» against the wall or an entertainment cabinet.
It is important to make sure that there is sufficient air/ventilation space between the vents (in the back end) and the wall/cabinet to allow for Heat Removal.

Make sure and have your appliances (like your Central Air Conditioning system or Heat Pump) serviced.
Whenever these appliances are serviced, the service professional will do various things (like clean out dust and debris from ventilation path), therefore maintaining an unobstructed path for heat to escape from these systems.

Make sure that the fan (inside some of your systems) is working.
If this fan stops working, then you need to get it repaired quickly. Failure to do this will result in your electronic system having an early meeting with the «grim reaper» or an electronic waste disposal site.

3.2 REDUCE THE AMOUNT OF HEAT THAT THE ELECTRONICS GENERATE IN THE FIRST PLACE
Another approach to protecting your electronics from heat is to take steps to try to prevent your electronics from generating excessive heat in the first place. The amount of heat that is generated within an electronic system is often referred to as being related to the following expression for resistive loss: I^2XR, where:

I represents the amount of current flowing through an electronic system and

R represents the load impedance (or resistance) within this electronic system; and

I^2 denotes » I being raised to the 2nd Power, or «I-squared»
From this mathematical expression, you can see that if we were able to reduce the amount of current flowing through an electrical system, this would certainly help to reduce the amount of heat generated within this electrical system.

QUESTION: How can you reduce the current that an electrical system uses? Doesn’t it require a certain amount of current to do its job? The answer to this question is «Yes», an electrical system does require a certain amount of current and voltage (electrical power) to do its job. However, it doesn’t need to use anymore current than that. Hence, we recommend that you use TVSS (Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors) components in order to reduce the current level (flowing into your electrical system).

Now, I know that some of you may be «scratching your heads» and wondering, «How in the world will this reduce the amount of current flowing into my electronic system» and (in turn reduce the amount of heat that it generates)? The answer is this: Anytime there is a large amount of electrical noise or spikes, or other forms of distortion in the electrical voltage and current in the power line, this also results in the flow of additional current into your electrical system. By using the TVSS components, you are eliminating this excessive current (due to noise, glitches, etc.) from the «power line» current, flowing into your electronic system.

In this case, you have now accomplished the following:

1. You have decreased the amount of current flowing into your electronic system, (which is the «I» in the expression «I^2 X R») — which helps a lot to reduce the amount of heat that the system generates.
2. By reducing the heat that the electrical system generates, you are now lowering the ambient (or surrounding) temperature in which your electronics operates.
3. Lowering the ambient temperature will often times also reduce the load impedance/resistance in your electronic system (e.g., the «R» in this expression) as well.

QUESTION: How can you reduce the load impedance/resistance in an electronic system? Isn’t that a design feature of the electronic system? The answer to this question is «Yes it is». You cannot change the load impedance/resistance by very much. But, the reason why lowering the ambient temperature will also reduce the load impedance/resistance is that many resistors have (what is called) a positive temperature coefficient. This means that as the ambient temperature goes up, does the resistor value of this particular resistor.

However, the converse is also true. If you were to lower the ambient (or surrounding) temperature, then you would also lower the resistor value as well.

SO LET’S RECAP THE BENEFITS OF USING TVSS COMPONENTS:

Using TVSS components lower the amount of current flowing through your electronic system.

Lowering this current reduces the amount of heat that the electronic system generates.

This lowers the ambient temperature for the system electronics.

Lowering the ambient temperature also lowers the load impedance/resistance (R) within the electronic system.

Both the reduction of current (and the resulting reduction of the load impedance) would serve to significantly reduce the amount of heat that the electronics system will generates.

4.0 OTHER ARTICLES IN THIS SERIES
Other articles in this series are listed below.

How to Protect Your Electronics from Electrical Surge/Spike Events

How to Protect Your Electronics from Electrical Noise

5.0 CONCLUSIONS
In this article, we spoke about «heat» and how effective it is in reducing the operating life-time of your electronics. Heat is one of the three (3) destructive mechanisms that will either destroy or shorten the operational life-time of your electronics. The remaining two mechanisms are

Electrical Surge/Spike Events, and

Electrical Noise

We have also described some guidelines on how to protect your electronics from heat, and to extend the operating life-time of your electronics. In particular, we mentioned the following approaches:

1. Use (and do not thwart) the «Heat Removal» features of your electronic systems

Make sure that Internal Fans are working and

Make sure that vents are not blocks and that there is plenty of air space around the Electronic system to allow for the escape of heat.
2. Use TVSS (Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor) components to regulate the amount of voltage (and in turn) current that is flowing into your electronic systems: Minimizes heat generation due to resistive loss.

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Study on Electronic Money

Introduction :

Commerce refers to all the activities surrounding the purchase or sale of goods or services. As we step into the next century, the Internet promises to bring unpredictable change in the society. Spanning the entire globe, crossing all boundaries, the net has redefined the methods of communication work, study, education, interaction, Entertainment, Health, Trade and commerce. There are some activities in commerce such as marketing, sales, payment, fulfillment, customer service etc.

Electronic commerce is the application of communication and information sharing technologies among trading partners to the aim of business objectives. Electronic Commerce is associated with the buying and selling of information, products and services via computer networks.

Electronic Commerce is a new way of conducting managing and executing business transactions using computer and telecommunication networks. Electronic Commerce refers to the paperless exchange of business information using EDI (Electronic Data Interchange), Electronic Mail, EFT (Electronic Funds Transfer) and other networks based technologies. Electronic Commerce applications started in the early 1970s, with such innovations as EFT.

Objectives Of The Study:

Purpose of the study is to diagnose the state of efficiency in itself and trace out the factors responsible for lower or higher efficiency in discharging various operation and activities of analysis in Electronic Money security.

1. To review rational and motives underlying term lending agencies in the present day complex mechanism of Electronic Money.

2. To analyze the institutional and organizational constraints hampering efficiency, efficiency and effectiveness of Electronic Money.

3. To assess their quality performance through structural analysis.

4. To examine the impact of new business policies and liberalization on these Electronic Money.

5. To study and analyze the security of Electronic Money transaction.

6. To suggest possible remedies for these institutions to halt their present declining trends.

7. To suggest the techniques for lending to higher growth of Electronic Money security.

Advantages Of Electronic Money:

Digital cash will allow for the immediate transfer of funds from an individual’s personal account to a businesses account, without any actual paper transfer of money. This offers a great convenience to many people and businesses alike.

Banks can offer many services whereby a customer can transfer funds, purchase stocks, and offer a variety of other services without having to handle the physical cash or cheques. Customers do not have to wait in lines, and this provides a lower hassle environment.

Disadvantages Of Electronic Money :

Although there are many benefits to digital cash, there are also many significant disadvantages. These include fraud, failure of technology, possible tracking of individuals and the loss of human interaction. It is very common that almost all systems have drawbacks. However, the question that needs to be asked is whether the advantages of using the system overpass the disadvantages.

Fraud over digital cash has been a pressing issue in recent years. Hacking into bank accounts and the illegal retrieval of banking records has led to a widespread invasion of privacy, and has promoted identity theft.

There is also a pressing issue in regards to the technology involved in digital cash. Power failures, loss of records, undependable software often cause a major setback in promoting the technology.

Fraud over digital cash has been a pressing issue in recent year. Hacking into bank accounts and illegal retrieval of banking records has led to a wide spread invasion of privacy and has promoted identity theft.

Power failures, loss of records and undependable software often cause a major set back in promoting the technology.

Frame Work Of Electronic Commerce:

Many people things Electronic Commerce is just having a web site, but Electronic Commerce is much more than that. There are dozens of applications of Electronic Commerce such as home banking, shopping in online stores and malls, buying stocks, finding a job, conducting an auction and collaborating electronically on research and development projects.

To execute these applications, it is necessary to have supporting information and organizational infrastructure and system.

Electronic Commerce applications are supported by infrastructures and their implementation is dependent on four major areas such as

1.people

2.public policy

3.technical standards

4.protocols and organizations

Peoples — Buyers, sellers, intermediaries, services etc.

public policy — Taxes, legal, and privacy issues, domain names.

technical standards — For documents, securities, and network protocols.

Organizations — Partners, competitors, associations, Govt. services.

There are some other area of Electronic Commerce infrastructure such as

1.Common business services infrastructure — security smart cards / authentication, Electronic Payment, directories / catalogs.

2.Messaging and information distribution infrastructure — EDI, Electronic Mail, HTTP.

3.Multimedia content and network publishing infrastructure — HTML, Java, WWW, VRML.

4.Network infrastructure — Telecom, cable, TV, wireless, Internet, WAN, MAN, LAN, Intranet, Extranet.

5.Interfacing infrastructure — To databases, customers and applications.

Electronic Money System Model:

The e-money system is a mechanism that facilitates payments — generally of limited value — in which e-money can be considered as an electronic surrogate for coins and banknotes. The e-money system is described on the basis of a model with a set of sub-systems through which electronic value (EV) is transferred, under the responsibility of a System Supervisor who monitors the security of EV creation, EV extinguishment and EV circulation within the system.

The three main elements which make up our e-money system model are EV, EV circulation between sub-systems and supervision. Put together, these elements constitute the core of the e-money system model. The notions of transactions, compensation, EV life cycle and actors then complete this model.

EV is a monetary value represented by a claim on an EV Issuer, which is:

— stored on an electronic device;

— issued on receipt of funds for an amount not less in value than the monetary value issued;

— accepted as a means of payment by undertakings other than the issuer.

The EV circulation starts with a first phase called EV creation, and ends with a final phase called EV extinguishment.

This model does not impose any restriction on the number of sub-systems that form an e-money system.

Transactions On The Internet:

All the transactions on the internet take place using the customer’s personal computer and the seller’s web server. Customers use a web browser to place on order with the merchant and specify their mode of payment. In the case of an online transaction the customer has the option of paying by credit card or smart card the customers can also to pay using electronic cash or a digital cheque . The software on the seller’s server has to verify the order and has to settle the transaction by receiving authorization for the transfer of funds from a bank or the credit and acquirer. It is possible that the applications on the customer’s, merchant’s and bank’s are not same. Hence the interaction across this step is achieved using a gateway, which is a link between applications.

The gateway allows for protocol conversion and communicates with the bank using the bank’s private network or the internet. Gateway, more specifically common gateway interface (CGI) is a specification for communicating data between an information server, for example server, and other application. CGI is used wherever the web server needs to send or receive data from another application, such as database. A CGI script is a program that negotiates the movement of data between the web server and an outside application. It typically passes data, filled in by the user in an HTML form, from the web server to a database.

Payment System:

In any business transaction, the customer and merchant enter into an agreement. According to this agreement the merchant supplies the goods and services that the customer requests for while the customer transfers funds to the merchant in lien for the goods received. Thus the payment is the most important part in the sales cycle.

The general requirements of payment system’s are-

(1)Confidentiality — the user expects a secure system of payment.

(2)Authentication — A method to verify the buyer’s identity before payment is authorized.

(3)Integrity — It ensuring that information will not be accidentally or maliciously altered or destroyed during transmission.

(4)Authorization — It allows the merchant to determine if the buyer actually has funds to pay for the purchase. The merchant verifies that the customer’s bank account has sufficient balance to honour the cheque amount.

(5)Privacy — There might be situations where both the customer and merchant would want to ensure the privacy of sale. example — a business conducting research might not the details of its purchases.

Types Of Electronic Payments:

The various methods that have been developed for making payments on the internet are electronic versions of the traditional payment systems that we use everyday. In our daily life we use cash, credit cards or cheques to make payments. All these systems are digitally incorporated on the web as e-cash, electronic cheques and credit cards.

(1)Credit Card:

Credit cards are the most popular payment method for cyberspace customer shopping today.

(a) The card holder- A customer or a corporate purchaser who uses credit cards to pay merchants.

(b) The merchant- the entity that accepts credit cards and offers goods or services in exchange for payments.

(c) The card issuer- A financial institution that establishes accounts for cardholders and issues credit cards.

(d) The acquirer- A financial institution that establishes an accounts for merchants and acquires the vouchers of authorized sales slips.

(2)Electronic Wallet Or Digital Wallet:

Secure electronic transaction (SET) protocol was initially designed by visa and master card in 1997. SET protocol meets the four security requirements for EC as SSL does: authentication, encryption, integrity and non repudiation. In addition, SET defines the message format, certificate format, and procedure of message exchange. The role of payment gateway is to connect the internet and proprietary networks of banks. Each participating entity needs its own certificates. To keep the consumer’s certificate in his or her personal computer or IC card, software called the electronic wallet or digital wallet.

(3)Debit Card:

It is also known as check card, is a card that authorizes the EFT. EFT ,Designed to transfer a certain amount of money from one account to another. The customer’s terminal can be automatic teller machine (ATM), PC, or telephone terminals. When we use a debit card, the amount is immediately deducted from our checking or savings accounts. The debit card allows we to spend only what is in our bank account.

Advantages Of Using Debit Card :

1.Obtaining a debit card is much easier than obtaining a credit card .

2.Using a debit card instead of writing checks saves you from showing personal identification .

3.Using a debit card frees we from carrying cash, travelers checks or a check book.

4.Marchants accepts debit cards more readily than checks.

(4)Smart Cards:

At present we carry many plastic cards such as credit cards, debit cards, charge cards, diving licenses, health insurance cards, employee or student identification cards and other.

Now for a moment if we think that all these cards are replaced by a single plastic card carrying all the information of the dozen or fifty cards. Not only dose it lighten our load, it makes identification and purchasing easer for us. Credit, debit and charge cards currently store limited information about us in a magnetic stripe. And unlike a smart card, a credit card dose not contain cash — it only contains a number of an account that can be charged.

A smart card can store hundred times more information than a magnetic striped plastic card. A smart contains private user information such as financial facts, private encryption key, account information, credit cards numbers, health insurance information and so on. The current generation of smart cards includes IC chips with programmable functions.

(5)Closed Vs Open Electronic Cash System:

Electronic cash system can be either closed or open.

A closed system implies that the cash value in the IC card can only be recharged from a banks accounts, and the used money, which was collected in the memory of the IC card readers will be transferred to the receivers bank account. The direct transfer between IC cards is prohibited.

In open system allows direct transfer of money value between IC cards. Because Govt. are afraid of the risk of lost traceability money laundering.

Conclusion :

Nowadays the traditional bills and coins are giving way to the electronic money. With the wide spread of Internet this transformation is inevitable. It is obvious that digital cash is the future of exchange mechanism. It will surely condense many of the prevailing inconveniences such as carrying large amount of cash and will resolve many of the in-security issues experienced today. The electronic money would not only be quicker and cheaper but also more robust and easy to authenticate. People would not be apprehensive in using it as it will respect their privacy and will allow even small merchants to carry out the business all over the world. The digital cash will also reduce the cost of transferring the money internationally, which is quite expensive at present. The electronic money will not replace the traditional form of transaction completely but will facilitate it surely.

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